Scientific consensus on the problems of global warming has taken a long time to emerge: on its extent; on its causes; and on its predicted consequences. It is just about achieved today. The article sets out the history of the negotiations that have led to the current situation, and then the setback (doubtless temporary, but none the less certain for all that) of the Copenhagen conference. It reminds us of what we know about global warming, and evokes its likely consequences: the desertification of entire regions in the centre of our continents and in the Mediterranean region, reductions in biological diversity, rising sea levels, melting polar icecaps, and growing tensions in the energy economy
In this wide-ranging article the author reflects on the notion of resilience and the different domains in which its application is relevant, and sketches out a concept that acknowledges the ambivalence of the term. He then considers what is meant by the resilience of a nation, and outlines a concept of French resilience.
In 2010, their ninth year of war in Afghanistan, the Americans have adopted a new, last-chance strategy of counter-insurgency, based on joint civil-military action. This new strategy is strongly influenced by the research of French analysts in the 1960s; it has little chance of success, since it cannot transcend military and political contradictions.
The White Paper on defence and national security highlighted the need to have a way to respond to internal crises, and to reinforce the resilience of the population. The creation of a National Guard would reinforce French security, particularly in the eventuality of a major catastrophe. It would be formed from citizens who had been trained as part of either an obligatory or a voluntary civil emergency organisation; it would also reinforce national solidarity and promote the fundamental values of the Republic.