In the first half of 2007, the European Union launched a new ESDP operation in Afghanistan, while another was being prepared in Kosovo. Much self-analysis has been carried out in the area of capabilities but also of operational matters. ESDP has been in place for several years, giving observers, and above all actors, the perspective necessary to draw some initial lessons from past experience. New areas are opening up, including that of space policy. The European Defence Agency is emerging as the driving force of a pragmatic and practical strengthening of ESDP, although political will expressed at the highest level remains essential. The unblocking of the European unification process by the June 2007 European Council could have positive effects on ESDP, although it has always continued to make progress.