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Eurosatory 2002

Since Saint-Malo considerable progress has been achieved in building the military capability of the European Union. However, adapting forces and capabilities is an ongoing and permanent process and further work will continue to be needed. The results achieved to-date have been obtained through an specific process which can be caracterised by three general principals: recourse to volontary contribution, using national assets, andfollowing a capability approach. Lire la suite

Reminding that the Army has decreased from 237,000 in 1996 to 138,000 in 2002, Serge Vinçon notices the debasement of living and working conditions, ageing and badly-maintained weaponry and equipment, a more pronounced backwardness beside our Allies. It is time to give to the Army new prospects through a recovery of operating budgets ; a new acquisition policy and resources in order to reach the Army 2015 model; a project for land forces armament industry, favouring its participation to European alliances, particularly Giat Industries.

À l’occasion d’une communication présentée le 19 mars 2002 devant la commission des finances du Sénat, M. Philippe Marini (RPR-Oise), rapporteur général, a insisté sur un élément particulièrement important à ses yeux : le « sacrifice de l’équipement militaire ». Lire la suite

2002 singles out the achievement of the French Army "refondation". As of today, the results can be compared to the initial objectives and referred to the environment. The budgetary, human and strategic challenges compelled to reconsider the organization. A new model – based on a better use of fewer assets – and a new culture – linked to professionalization – has been conceived and implemented. The current issue is to strengthen the Army in order to guarantee its rank within the Nation and to allocate the necessary resources.

The land and air-land defence industry is today on the eve of a technological revolution, able to lead to major restructuring in this sector which is in a specific situation because of the army budget collapse in most of the European Countries. The BOA concept, which is built on the integration of advanced technologies is the French version of a more general approach of the future air land battlefield and could be compared to the Future Combat System of the US Army. It could be the starting point of a new age in this industrial sector. But two conditions have to be satisfied: firstly, the harmonization of the military requirements of the European armies in order to design a common federative program able to embrace new capabilities; secundly, a very significant boost of the army budget in the European countries. The political authorities have to give the impetus for this move as they did in 1997 for the aerospace sector while the industrialists have to find the technical and economical solutions for the consolidation of the land and air-land defence sector at the european level.

France intends to conserve a leading role among the European powers engaged in joint allied operations. It is on the ground however that the success of a military intervention is played out and materialised. The French forces, the army in particular, confronted with a profound modification of their environment (professionalism, refocusing on military missions, etc.) and users for still many years to come of Giat Industries equipment, must be able to count on Giat Industries, an indispensable industrial tool for the policy of France. Proud of its past, strengthened by its prior attainments and confident in its technical capabilities, Giat Industries intends to do all in its power to adapt to its environment and reestablish a durable economic balance in order to prepare to the best of its ability to participate in the industrial regroupings required.

The evolution of the nature of the conflicts which appeared during the last decade, combined with the will to create a Europe of Defence and armament, has led to profound changes within the Armies and the European civil and military aerospace industry. The new missions of the Armies require new means that have been defined in terms of capacities. The implementation of this approach implies, on the one hand, a European political will to achieve more coherence in procurement policies, budgets and calendars and on the other hand, a consolidation of the industrial tool which will render it more efficient and competitive, allowing it to respond, at least partially, to the budgetary imperatives.

C4ISR (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance) is an innovative concept and a response to a new operational paradigm. Building on the Observe, Orient, Decide, Act (OODA) loop, C4ISR integrates sensors, data fusion, decision support, command and control information systems, communication systems and weapon systems within a single architecture.

Since 1996, the French Army is engaged in a great transformation with a new organization based on professional troops. Today, we have to conduct technical and doctrinal evolutions to face new threats. Interoperability, multi-nationality are components we have to develop. But we have also to maintain our capabilities to conduct operations of war. All those projects are now conceived with an European dimension.

Threats, strategies, conflicts... not even News but also the analysis of several possible "future of defence", send us more and more away from cold war context, for which most in-service occidental weapon systems have been conceived. To be in a constant way to use the best suited equipment, technology progress has to be completed by new architectures of the combat system. Cooperative engaging of specialised equipments (sensors, effectors), sharing their assessment of operational situation and contributing to shape it, is one of the most important evolution in combat contact.

Lt General (R) Th. Stroup (AUSA) briefly summarizes the US Army Transformation: "Transform the Army into a strategically responsive force dominant across the full spectrum of operations", according to General E. Shinseki, who sets seven broad goals to make the Army more responsive, deployable, agile, versatile, lethal, survivable and sustainable. Army Transformation is a total overhaul of training, doctrine, equipment and institutional thinking. The three key elements are: the legacy force, the heavy force comprising the Army mechanized infantry and armed divisions; the interim force, able to deploy more quickly than the heavy forces and with more combat punch, ground mobility, and soldier protection than light or airborne forces; the objective force representing the aim of what can be done to equip, organize and train unit to assimilate the best aspects of the heavy, light and interim forces. The future combat system (FCS) will be the primary weapon/troop-carrying platform for the objective force, able to direct or indirect fire, infantry carrier, and sensor, and fit on a C-130-sized transport aircraft.

Repères - Opinions - Débats

Les interventions militaires dans les Balkans et l'indéfectible solidarité avec les États-Unis après les terribles événements du 11 septembre démontrent la rapidité avec laquelle la Bundeswehr a dû s'adapter à la nouvelle donne internationale. Dans son discours prononcé à l'occasion de la 39e réunion des commandants de la Bundeswehr à Hanovre, le 8 avril 2002, le Chancelier fédéral Gerhard Schröder souligne que l'Allemagne doit assumer ses responsabilités internationales. Selon lui, l'évolution de l'UE, sa complémentarité avec l'Otan, la coopération transatlantique et un véritable partenariat de sécurité avec la Russie représentent autant d'éléments importants pour la politique étrangère et de sécurité de l'Allemagne.

Analyse de l'ouvrage L'Action et le système du monde de Thierry de Montbrial, où ce dernier propose une méthode qui permet de « formuler et de réaliser des projets » de toute nature et des exemples d'application aux conflits, à la stratégie, aux relations internationales et à la dissuasion. L'auteur de l'article, l'amiral Duval, livre au passage quelques réflexions sur la stratégie et la dissuasion.

Les États-Unis ne sont pas un État-nation. Chacun des États fédérés jouit d'une grande autonomie, source de distorsions à l'intérieur du territoire. Tout se passe comme si le Président était leur élu et non celui de la globalité des citoyens. Les actes de l'État ne bénéficient pas d'un privilège de juridiction. En matière de justice, la procédure en restreint le rôle. La société civile, sous la forme de multinationales ou d'organisations philanthropiques ou culturelles, prend souvent le pas sur lui. Les deux États limitrophes, au nord et au sud, ne sont pas restés à l'écart des visées de leur puissant voisin. Les Caraïbes et l'Amérique centrale sont balkanisées. Les États d'Europe se sont pratiquement retirés du continent, et la doctrine de Monroë a reçu pleine application. D'une manière générale, les Américains s'efforcent de négocier avec des gouvernements sans pouvoir réel plutôt qu'avec de fortes entités. Ils n'ont jamais essayé de créer des structures étatiques là où elles n'existaient pas : le Liberia, seule exception, est une caricature d'État. Restreindre les autres souverainetés au profit d'organismes internationaux ne leur déplaît pas.



Michel VERGE-FRANCESCHI : Michel Verge-Franceschi : Toulon port royal, 1481-1789 ; Taillandier, mars 2002 ; 330 pages ; Taillandier, mars 2002 ; 330 pages. - Jacques Walch

Charles SAINT-PROT : Charles Saint-Prot : La pensée française ; Éditions L'âge d'homme, 2002 ; 192 pages ; Éditions L'âge d'homme, 2002 ; 192 pages. - Marc Bonnefous

Revue Défense Nationale - Juin 2002 - n° 643

Revue Défense Nationale - Juin 2002 - n° 643

À l’occasion d’une communication présentée le 19 mars 2002 devant la commission des finances du Sénat, M. Philippe Marini (RPR-Oise), rapporteur général, a insisté sur un élément particulièrement important à ses yeux : le « sacrifice de l’équipement militaire ».

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