Cooperative defence equipment programmes are perceived to have a rather mixed track record insofar that not all potential economic, political, military or industrial benefits have been secured. The Organisation Conjointe de Cooperation en matière d'ARmement (OCCAR) has been created with a view to establishing a model for the management of collaborative programmes, which is more efficient and effective than the traditional models for cooperation. OCCAR endeavours to play a key role in the ongoing establishment of structured processes and approaches addressing capability development and cooperation in the field of defence equipment by offering excellence in the field of programme management and corporate governance practice. Its management structures are lean and agile and based upon empowerment and close customer involvement. OCCAR believes that it is complementary to the European Defence Agency (EDA), with the latter being upstream of OCCAR-EA in the capability development process.