Water resources nowadays are ever more unevenly distributed across the face of the world. With largely unrestrained population growth, unchecked pollution and significant climate change, some regions of the world are threatened with a shortage of water that could lead to intercommunal tensions. The answer lies primarily in a new attitude towards water, which implies consuming less and managing it more efficiently. The development and use of new technologies will help. But real priority must be given to water and its treatment. There are financial, ethical, governmental, energy-related and geopolitical answers, but the international community must take the initiative in implementing them.