The effects of global warming are particularly noticeable in the far North, and the International Polar Year (2007-08) is very relevant in this respect. If all the consequences, both fortunate and unfortunate, are still far from being recognised, this new state of affairs is awakening claims or ambitions (continental shelf, exclusive economic zones, natural resources and fishery, etc.). In due course it will redefine power politics, spheres of influence and maritime routes. Canada, the United States, Denmark, Norway and Russia are at the centre of the geopolitical equation. So how can one anticipate these possible sources of insecurity?