In 1995 all countries, with the exception of India, Israel and Pakistan, signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT); some because it was in their interest and others under pressure from the superpowers. Since the mid-1970s, a further problem has been how to make the signatories put the treaty into practice. A not insignificant number of breaches were noted in the 1980s and 1990s, but until recently the United States and the former Soviet Union were able to crack down on them and prevent the non-compliant countries from achieving their aims. More recently, the crises in North Korea and Iran seem to show that the great powers no longer have the means to impose their policies on others, or to get a majority of countries on their side. Meanwhile, the UN is at a standstill on the issue.